Clinical studies on liners and locks - מנגנוני נעילה וליינרים 


In order of most recent publication first:


Tanner, J. and Berke, G. Radiographic Comparison of Vertical Tibial Translation Using Two Types of Suspensions on a Transtibial Prosthesis: A Case Study. J Prosth Orthot, 13, 14-16, 2001.


Synopsis: Two types of suspensions, the neoprene sleeve and the silicone suction socket suspension with lock, were compared on a single patient by using radiographic measurement of vertical tibial displacement and vertical soft-tissue displacement. The neoprene sleeve suspension allowed 1.8 cm more distal soft-tissue displacement than did the silicone suction socket suspension with a lock. The patient experienced less pistoning with the lock compared to the neoprene sleeve.



Viejo MAG, Huerta MJC. Muscular atrophy and demineralization in low limb amputees. Causes and consequences.  Rehabilitacion, 34, 285-293, 2000. 


Synopsis: In a study of 47 lower limb amputees (33 transfemoral and 14 transtibial) significant muscular atrophy and bone demineralization was found on both levels of amputation. The authors recommend that the amputees should use silicone liner with shuttle lock to avoid the atrophy and demineralization.



Lake, C. and Supan, T. The incidence of dermatological problems in the silicone suspension sleeve user. J Prosthet Orthot, 9, 97-106, 1997. 


Synopsis: The authors have reviewed pertinent literature on dermatological problems. They suggest the elderly diabetic/PVD amputee would benefit most from silicone suspension due to transfer of shear forces from between the skin and socket to between liner and socket.



Dasgupta, A. K., McCluskie, P. J., Patel, V. S. and Robins, L. The performance of the ICEROSS prostheses amongst transtibial amputees with a special reference to the workplace--a preliminary study. Icelandic Roll on Silicone Socket. Occup Med (Lond), 47, 228-36, 1997.  


Synopsis: A clinical trial on randomly selected 27 male transtibial amputees, fitted with ICEROSS. There were overall improvements in comfort and performance of amputees with ICEROSS.



Narita, H., Yokogushi, K., Shii, S., Kakizawa, M. and Nosaka, T. Suspension effect and dynamic evaluation of the total surface bearing (TSB) trans-tibial prosthesis: a comparison with the patellar tendon bearing (PTB) trans-tibial prosthesis. Prosthet Orthot Int, 21, 175-8, 1997. 


Synopsis: A clinical X-ray study on nine amputees comparing PTB and TSB sockets with ICEROSS liners. The suspension of the TSB socket with the ICEROSS liner was superior to that of PTB prosthesis. The stability of the TSB prosthesis was statistically better than the PTB prosthesis. 



McCurdie, I., Hanspal, R. and Nieveen, R. ICEROSS--a consensus view: a questionnaire survey of the use of ICEROSS in the United Kingdom. Prosthet Orthot Int, 21, 124-8, 1997. 


Synopsis: 42 doctors and 43 senior prosthetists received a questionnaire about prescribing ICEROSS liners. Positive indications for using ICEROSS liners were pistoning, shear-sensitive skin and insufficient suspension due to change in type or level of activity.



Datta, D., Vaidya, S. K., Howitt, J. and Gopalan, L. Outcome of fitting an ICEROSS prosthesis: views of trans-tibial amputees. Prosthet Orthot Int, 20, 111-5, 1996. 


Synopsis: Outcome of fitting 54 amputees with ICEROSS liners. The amputees considered that the rated stump skin breakdown with ICEROSS liners was significant less compared with the traditional PTB prosthesis. The amputees overall rating of the prosthesis with an ICEROSS liner were scored significantly higher compared to the PTB prosthesis.



Lilja M, Öberg T Knall H, Tovborg-Jensen R. Movements in prosthetic sockets: a comparison between ICEROSS and PTB-socket Abstract Swedish Medical Society, Hygiea. 1994. 


Synopsis: An X-ray study on tibial movements inside prostheses with ICEROSS liners compared to earlier studies on PTB prostheses. A reduction of tibial movements was seen in the ICEROSS prostheses compared to the PTB prostheses.



Cluitmans, J., Geboers, M., Deckers, J. and Rings, F. Experiences with respect to the ICEROSS system for trans-tibial prostheses. Prosthet Orthot Int, 18, 78-83, 1994. 


Synopsis: Some 43 patients participated in this survey. In general all patients perceived the prosthesis with ICEROSS liner to be of benefit. Of the 26 patients who had another prosthesis previously 22 said that they did not whant to go back to previous prosthesis.


Aloe vera studies


Abdullah, K. M., Abdullah, A., Johnson, M. L., Bilski, J. J., Petry, K., Redmer, D. A., Reynolds, L. P. and Grazul-Bilska, A. T. Effects of Aloe vera on gap junctional intercellular communication and proliferation of human diabetic and nondiabetic skin fibroblasts. J Altern Complement Med, 9, 711-8, 2003. 


Synopsis: In vitro study using human type II diabetic and nondiabetic skin fibroblast cell lines. The results demonstrate that Aloe vera has the ability to stimulate GJIC (gap junctional intercellular communication) and proliferation of human skin fibroblasts in diabetes mellitus. Therefore Aloe vera may improve wound healing in diabetes mellitus.



Davis, R. H., Leitner, M. G. and Russo, J. M. Aloe vera. A natural approach for treating wounds, edema, and pain in diabetes. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc, 78, 60-8, 1988. 


Synopsis: The authors studied Aloe vera as a mode of treatment to alleviate some of the consequences associated with diabetes. As an aid in improving diabetic wound healing the test group showed almost 100% increased wound reduction compared with the control group. They show that Aloe vera is an effective agent in treatment of wounds, edema and pain associated with diabetes.